Wissenschaftlicher Nachweis von Meridianen im Körper

Ein dreiköpfiges Forscherteam um den Physiker Professor Dr. Dr. Fritz A. Popp gelang im Jahr 2004, am Internationalen Institut für Biophysik in Neuss die Meridianstruktur auf der Körperoberfläche nachzuweisen. Dr. Popp: „Mittels einer angezündeten Moxibutioins-Zigarre aus Beifuß wird jene Körperregion erwärmt, deren Meridianstruktur sichtbar gemacht werden soll.“ Auf den Aufnahmen einer höchst licht- und wärmesensiblen Infrarot-Kamera erkennt man die Ausbreitung der Biophotonen entlang der Meridiane.

Bereits 1992 konnten die Meridiane messtechnisch nachgewiesen und aufgezeichnet werden. Hierzu wurde ein Radionucleid, Technecium 99, als Tracersubstanz in Akupunkturpunkte, Lymphgefäße, Venen und neutrales Gewebe eingespritzt. Anhand der Darstellung der Verlaufsformen und Fließgeschwindigkeiten konnten die Meridiane eindeutig nachgewiesen werden. (Nachzulesen in: "Die Neue Ärztliche" Nr. 39, vom 07.11.1985, "Bioenergetik" Nr. 6, Juni/Juli 1988, "Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur", Nr. 35, 1-1992)

Studien zur Akupunktur

Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2002 Aug;9(4):210-5.

Chronic epicondylitis: effects of real and sham acupuncture treatment: a randomised controlled patient- and examiner-blinded long-term trial.

Fink M, Wolkenstein E, Luennemann M, Gutenbrunner C, Gehrke A, Karst M.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hannover Medical School.

OBJECTIVE: The clinical long-term effectiveness of real and sham acupuncture treatment on differentiated pain measurement was evaluated in chronic lateral epicondylitis, an example of a tendomyotic disorder. METHODS: Randomised, examiner- and patient-blinded controlled clinical study. Outcome measurement: pain at rest, pain on movement, pain on exertion, frequency and duration of pain. Real acupuncture (n = 23) was tested versus invasive sham acupuncture (n = 22). Ten treatments were given (2 treatments/week). Patients were examined at baseline (E1) as well as 2 weeks (E2), 2 months (E3) and 1 year (E4) after the end of treatment. In the treatment with real acupuncture, acupuncture points were selected and mechanically stimulated while in the sham group non-acupuncture points were selected. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups at baseline for any outcome parameter. Two weeks, 2 months and 1 year after the end of treatment there were significant reductions in all pain variables compared to baseline. At the first follow-up, significant group differences were registered for pain on motion and pain on exertion in favour to the real acupuncture group. These differences in pain intensity between the groups were no longer significant at the 2 months and 12 months follow-ups. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that, in the treatment of chronic epicondylitis, the selection of so-called real acupuncture points gives better results than invasive sham acupuncture at early follow-up. This additional effect can be interpreted as a specific effect of real acupuncture. Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Feb;41(2):205-9.

Acupuncture in chronic epicondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

Fink M, Wolkenstein E, Karst M, Gehrke A.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis. METHODS: In a randomized, investigator- and patient-blinded, controlled clinical study, 23 patients were treated with real acupuncture and 22 patients received sham acupuncture. Patients each received 10 treatments, with two treatments per week. The primary outcome variables were maximal strength, pain intensity (verbal rating scale) and disability scale (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire). Patients were examined at baseline (1 week before the start of treatment) and at follow-up 2 weeks and 2 months after the end of treatment. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups at baseline for any outcome parameter. Two weeks and 2 months after the end of treatment, there were significant reductions in pain intensity and improvements in the function of the arm and in maximal strength in both treatment groups. At the 2-week follow-up these differences were significantly greater for all outcome parameters in the group treated with real acupuncture. At 2 months the function of the arm was still better in this group than in the sham acupuncture group; however, the differences in pain intensity and maximal strength between the groups were no longer significant. CONCLUSION: In the treatment of chronic epicondylopathia lateralis humeri, acupuncture in which real acupuncture points were selected and stimulated was superior to non-specific acupuncture with respect to reduction in pain and improvement in the functioning of the arm. These changes are particularly marked at early follow-up.

Neurosci Lett. 2008 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print]

The neural substrates of verum acupuncture compared to non-penetrating placebo needle: An fMRI study.

Chae Y, Lee H, Kim H, Sohn H, Park JH, Park HJ.

Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Meridian & Acupoints, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapeutic technique, is currently emerging as an important modality in complementary and alternative medicine around the world. Several studies have provided useful information regarding neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture in human brain activation. We explored brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and compared verum acupuncture to placebo needles. Two fMRI scans were taken in random order in a block design, one for verum acupuncture and one for non-penetrating placebo needles at the motor function-implicated acupoint LR2, on the left foot, in 10 healthy volunteers. We calculated the contrast that subtracted the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses between the verum and sham acupuncture. Verum acupuncture stimulation elicited significant activation in both motor function-related brain areas, including the caudate, claustrum, and cerebellum, and limbic-related structures, such as the medial frontal gyrus, the cingulate gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. These findings suggest that acupuncture not only elicited acupoint-implicated brain activation, but also modulated the affective components of the pain matrix. The current investigation of the specific pattern of the brain activation related to genuine acupuncture provides new information regarding the neurobiological basis of acupuncture.

J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov;14(9):1097-105.

The effect of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Suzuki M, Namura K, Ohno Y, Tanaka H, Egawa M, Yokoyama Y, Akao S, Fujiwara H, Yano T.

Department of Health Promoting Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: Many claims have been made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture. However, most controlled clinical studies have been limited to treatment of pain-related disorders and do not provide objective, quantifiable data for analysis. Traditional acupuncture has been applied to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, only a few studies have been performed to determine the efficacy of this treatment. This study was conducted to determine whether a combination of traditional acupuncture treatment and conservative treatment for COPD improves dyspnea on exercise. METHODS: This was a prospective trial with matched-pair parallel groups of patients from the departments of respiratory internal medicine of Gifu University of Medicine, Meiji University of Oriental Medicine, and Gifu Red Cross Hospital, Japan. Thirty patients were divided into the acupuncture group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The control group received conservative treatment with medication only. The acupuncture group received acupuncture treatments once a week for 10 weeks, in addition to conservative treatment with medication. The main outcome measure was the Modified Borg dyspnea scale after the 6-minute walk test. RESULTS: The acupuncture group had significantly better results on the Borg scale than the control group after 10 weeks (2.2 +/- 2.7 versus 6.4 +/- 3.4, p = 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, -5.10 to -2.35, paired t-test). The 6-minute walk distance and oxygen saturation at the minimum rate improved significantly in the acupuncture group compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that acupuncture contributed to the reduction of COPD-related dyspnea on exercise in 15 matched-pair parallel subjects.

Related Articles

·         ReviewOxygen therapy during exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007]

·         ReviewLong-acting beta2-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000]

·         Trigger point acupuncture treatment of chronic low back pain in elderly patients--a blinded RCT. [Acupunct Med. 2004]

·         Effect of acupuncture or acupressure on quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive asthma: a pilot study. [J Altern Complement Med. 2003]

·         Usefulness of the modified 0-10 Borg scale in assessing the degree of dyspnea in patients with COPD and asthma. [J Emerg Nurs. 2000]

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Nov;101(5):535-43.

Acupuncture in patients with allergic rhinitis: a pragmatic randomized trial.

Brinkhaus B, Witt CM, Jena S, Liecker B, Wegscheider K, Willich SN.

Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is widely used in patients with allergic rhinitis, but the available evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in addition to routine care in patients with allergic rhinitis compared with treatment with routine care alone. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, patients with allergic rhinitis were randomly allocated to receive up to 15 acupuncture sessions during a period of 3 months or to a control group receiving no acupuncture. Patients who did not consent to random assignment received acupuncture treatment. All patients were allowed to receive usual medical care. The Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and general health-related quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Of 5,237 patients (mean [SD] age, 40 [12] years; 62% women), 487 were randomly assigned to acupuncture and 494 to control, and 4,256 were included in the nonrandomized acupuncture group. At 3 months, the RQLQ improved by a mean (SE) of 1.48 (0.06) in the acupuncture group and by 0.50 (0.06) in the control group (3-month scores, 1.44 [0.06] and 2.42 [0.06], respectively; difference in improvement, 0.98 [0.08]; P < .001). Similarly, quality-of-life improvements were more pronounced in the acupuncture vs the control group (P < .001). Six-month improvements in both acupuncture groups were lower than they had been at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial suggest that treating patients with allergic rhinitis in routine care with additional acupuncture leads to clinically relevant and persistent benefits. In addition, it seems that physician characteristics play a minor role in the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment, although this idea needs further investigation.

Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(6):1029-39.

The efficacy of electroacupuncture therapy for weight loss changes plasma lipoprotein a, apolipoprotein a and apolipoprotein B levels in obese women.

Cabioglu MT, Gündogan N, Ergene N.

Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Başkent University, Ankara, Turkey. [email protected]

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture treatment on lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B levels in obese subjects. Fifty-eight women were studied in 3 groups as follows: 1) Placebo acupuncture (n = 15; mean age = 41.47 +/- 4.61, and mean body mass index {BMI} = 33.43 +/- 3.10); 2) Electroacupuncture (EA) (n = 20; mean age = 40.55 +/- 5.30, and BMI = 35.65 +/- 3.84) and 3) Diet restriction groups (n = 23; mean age = 42.91 +/- 4.02, and BMI = 34.78 +/- 3.29). EA was performed using the ear points, Hungry, Shen Men and Stomach the body points, Hegu (LI 4), Quchi (LI 11), Tianshu (St 25), Zusanli (St 36), Neiting (St 44) and Taichong (Liv 3) for 20 days. Intragroup comparisons were made by using paired samples t-test whereas intergroup differences were investigated by the two-way variation analysis and LSD test. There was a 4.7% (p < 0.001) weight reduction in patients with electroacupuncture application, whereas patients in diet restriction had a 2.9% (p < 0.001) weight reduction. There were significant decreases in lipoprotein A (p < 0.05) and apolipoprotein B (p < 0.05) levels in the EA compared to the control group and no changes in apolipoprotein A levels was observed in EA, diet and placebo acupuncture groups. EA therapy may be a useful approach for the treatment of obesity for both losing weight and lowing the risk factors for cardiovascular disease associated with obesity, since this application may decrease the plasma lipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B levels

J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Side-Effects of Moxibustion for Cephalic Version of Breech Presentation.

Guittier MJ, Klein TJ, Dong H, Andreoli N, Irion O, Boulvain M.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.,University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HEdS-SO), Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract Objectives: Moxibustion, a Traditional Chinese Medicine technique related to acupuncture, was proposed to facilitate cephalic version of breech presentation. Several trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy, but there are few reports on the safety of moxibustion. Our objective was to assess the side-effects and acceptability of this intervention. Design: We are conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion for breech version. The first 12 participants randomized in the moxibustion group had additional fetal surveillance by electronic monitoring. Subjects: Pregnant women with a fetus in breech presentation are included in the trial between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. Interventions: We performed a cardiotocogram during 10 minutes before, 20 minutes during, and 10 minutes after each session. A maximum of 9 sessions were scheduled every other day, and stopped when cephalic version was diagnosed. The recordings were assessed by 3 independent readers using the Fischer scoring system. Outcome measures: Fetal well-being was evaluated by the cardiotocogram; effect on the mother was evaluated by blood pressure recorded before and after each session; maternal views, contractions, and perceived changes in fetal movements were assessed using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 65 cardiotocograms were analyzed. All scores were considered as normal, being at 8 or more on a 0-10 scale. Acceptability for the women and compliance to the intervention were good. No significant maternal or fetal side-effect was observed. Conclusions: We have not detected alterations of fetal and maternal well-being or other side-effects associated with moxibustion applied to the BL 67 for cephalic version of breech presentations. Moxibustion appears to be safe for both the mother and the fetus.

Can Child Adolesc Psychiatr Rev. 2003 Feb;12(1):10-2.

An open trial of auricular acupuncture for the treatment of repetitive self-injury in depressed adolescents.

Nixon MK, Cheng M, Cloutier P.

Mental Health Patient Service Unit, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario.

Repetitive self-injurious behavior (SIB) is frequently seen in depressed adolescents. In addition to it providing relief for dysphoric symptoms there is evidence of an addictive component to this behaviour. Because auricular acupuncture (AA) has been shown to be effective as an adjunct treatment to cocaine dependence, we wished to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of this treatment in depressed adolescents with repetitive SIB. Our pilot results suggest that AA is an acceptable treatment in this group and that it may be an effective adjunct treatment for repetitive SIB. Moreover, decreases in SIB were evident while depressive symptoms remained unchanged.

Lupus. 2008;17(12):1108-16.

Acupuncture for systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot RCT feasibility and safety study.

Greco C, Kao A, Maksimowicz-McKinnon K, Glick R, Houze M, Sereika S, Balk J, Manzi S.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [email protected]

The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of studying acupuncture in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to pilot test the safety and explore benefits of a standardized acupuncture protocol designed to reduce pain and fatigue. Twenty-four patients with SLE were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either acupuncture, minimal needling or usual care. Pain, fatigue and SLE disease activity were assessed at baseline and following the last sessions. Safety was assessed at each session. Fifty-two patients were screened to enroll 24 eligible and interested persons. Although transient side effects, such as brief needling pain and lightheadedness, were reported, no serious adverse events were associated with either the acupuncture or minimal needling procedures. Twenty-two participants completed the study, and the majority (85%) of acupuncture and minimal needling participants were able to complete their sessions within the specified time period of 5-6 weeks. 40% of patients who received acupuncture or minimal needling had >/=30% improvement on standard measures of pain, but no usual care patients showed improvement in pain. A ten-session course of acupuncture appears feasible and safe for patients with SLE. Benefits were similar for acupuncture and minimal needling.

Anesth Analg. 2008 Dec;107(6):2038-47.

Acupuncture for the management of chronic headache: a systematic review.

Sun Y, Gan TJ.

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Box 3094, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for treatment of chronic headache. METHODS: We searched the databases of Medline (1966-2007), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2006), and Scopus for randomized controlled trials investigating the use of acupuncture for chronic headache. Studies were included in which adults with chronic headache, including migraine, tension-type headache or both, were randomized to receive needling acupuncture treatment or control consisting of sham acupuncture, medication therapy, and other nonpharmacological treatments. We extracted the data on headache intensity, headache frequency, and response rate assessed at early and late follow-up periods. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies were included in this review. The majority of included trials comparing true acupuncture and sham acupuncture showed a trend in favor of acupuncture. The combined response rate in the acupuncture group was significantly higher compared with sham acupuncture either at the early follow-up period (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.30) or late follow-up period (RR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.43). Combined data also showed acupuncture was superior to medication therapy for headache intensity (weighted mean difference: -8.54 mm, 95% CI: -15.52, -1.57), headache frequency (standard mean difference: -0.70, 95% CI: -1.38, -0.02), physical function (weighted mean difference: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.33, 6.98), and response rate (RR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.17). CONCLUSION: Needling acupuncture is superior to sham acupuncture and medication therapy in improving headache intensity, frequency, and response rate.

http://javascript:AL_get(this, 'jour', 'Lancet.');Lancet. 1986 Dec 20-27;2(8521-22):1416-9

Controlled trial of acupuncture for disabling breathlessness.

Jobst K, Chen JH, McPherson K, Arrowsmith J, Brown V, Efthimiou J, Fletcher HJ, Maciocia G, Mole P, Shifrin K, et al.

In a randomised controlled trial, twelve matched pairs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease received traditional Chinese acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. After three weeks' treatment the traditional-acupuncture group showed significantly greater benefit in terms of subjective scores of breathlessness and six-minute walking distance. Objective measures of lung function were unchanged in either group. Whether these differences are mediated by endogenous opiate and/or peptide release remains speculative.

[Effect of acupuncture on quality of life, mouth occlusion pressures and lung function in COPD]

[Article in German]

Neumeister W, Kuhlemann H, Bauer T, Krause S, Schultze-Werninghaus G, Rasche K.

Abteilung fur Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil-Universitatsklinik, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum.
RESULTS: Patients receiving verum acupuncture improved significantly with FEV1 and RV/TLC. There was an improvement of large magnitude in quality of life and a trend of lower demand of the respiratory pump. In the placebo group we saw only a slight improvement of quality of life, a deterioration of lung function parameters and a trend of higher demand of the respiratory pump. CONCLUSION: Although the small number of subjects allows no further conclusions this pilot study proves feasibility of acupuncture in COPD and shows that acupuncture is worthy for further investigation in patients suffering from COPD.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Jun;81(6):749-57.  

Improvement in fibromyalgia symptoms with acupuncture: results of a randomized controlled trial.

Martin DP, Sletten CD, Williams BA, Berger IH

Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that acupuncture improves symptoms of fibromyalgia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, partially blinded, controlled, randomized clinical trial of patients receiving true acupuncture compared with a control group of patients who received simulated acupuncture. All patients met American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia and had tried conservative symptomatic treatments other than acupuncture. We measured symptoms with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Multidimensional Pain Inventory at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at 1 month and 7 months after treatment. The trial was conducted from May 28, 2002, to August 18, 2003. RESULTS: Fifty patients participated in the study: 25 in the acupuncture group and 25 in the control group. Total fibromyalgia symptoms, as measured by the FIQ, were significantly improved in the acupuncture group compared with the control group during the study period (P = .01). The largest difference in mean FIQ total scores was observed at 1 month (42.2 vs 34.8 in the control and acupuncture groups, respectively; P = .007). Fatigue and anxiety were the most significantly improved symptoms during the follow-up period. However, activity and physical function levels did not change. Acupuncture was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects. CONCLUSION: This study paradigm allows for controlled and blinded clinical trials of acupuncture. We found that acupuncture significantly improved symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptomatic improvement was not restricted to pain relief and was most significant for fatigue and anxiety.


Studie zur Schmerzlinderung mittels Akupunktur

Akupunktur ist bei der Behandlung von Schmerzen mehr als ein Placebo. Ärzte der Universität Jena wiesen die Wirksamkeit der traditionellen chinesischen Heilmethode in einer jetzt veröffentlichten Studie nach. Das teilte die Hochschule am Dienstag mit. Die feinen Nadelstiche linderten Schmerzen demnach, indem sie die elektrischen Schmerzsignale im Körper verringerten. Das hätten Versuche an Probanden unter Vollnarkose ergeben. Bisher steht die Heilmethode im Ruf, nur psychisch zu wirken.

Versuche an Probanden unter Vollnarkose

Die Jenaer Anästhesiologen versetzten in ihren Versuchen 16 Freiwillige in die künstliche Bewusstlosigkeit, um einen psychisch bedingten Scheineffekt (Placeboeffekt) auszuschließen. Dann wurden sie Schmerzreizen ausgesetzt und die Hälfte mit elektrischer Nadelakupunktur an traditionellen Schmerzpunkten am Bein behandelt. Die Schmerzreaktionen wurden dabei anhand der Hirnströme gemessen.

Akupunktur lindert tatsächlich Schmerzen

Die Wissenschaftler beobachteten, dass die Anregung bestimmter Punkte des Körpers mittels Akupunktur Schmerzen lindert. "Die Schmerzreize konnten durch den Einsatz der Akupunktur gedämpft, aber nicht völlig abgeblockt werden", sagte Winfried Meißner, Leiter der Schmerzambulanz der Jenaer Uniklinik und Erstautor der Studie. "Das weist darauf hin, dass Akupunktur zwar ein nachweislich wirksames, aber dennoch relativ schwaches Schmerzmittel ist." Bei starken Schmerzen reiche die Behandlungsmethode möglicherweise nicht aus.

Mögliche Anwendung nach Operationen?

In einer weiteren Studie untersucht die Forschergruppe nun die Anwendbarkeit von Akupunktur zur Schmerzlinderung nach Operationen.

Jüngere Studie: Wirkung nur bei Kniegelenksarthrose

Erst kürzlich hatte die im Auftrag der Ersatzkassen durchgeführte weltweit größte Akupunkturstudie den Nutzen der Nadelbehandlung gegen Schmerzen belegt. Diese Studie hatte eine echte Wirksamkeit der Akupunktur nur bei Kniegelenksarthrose beobachtet. Bei Migräne- und Rückenschmerzpatienten war eine Scheinakupunktur ähnlich nützlich wie die echte Nadelbehandlung.